Stationary batteries: types, features and applications
Electronically storage devices – a wide range of products with various applications: lead-acid, nickel, sodium-sulfur, silver-zinc, cadmium, copper-lithium, gel and other types. The most common are lead acid and gel batteries.
Stationary batteries are essential for the operation of key energy-consuming systems: for their autonomous operation or for use in conditions of power outages. In addition, batteries are used in the work of alternative energy sources, in which the generation of electricity is characterized by a variable nature (wind power plants, solar installations, etc.).
Fixed battery design, the most popular models
The battery is represented by:
sealed case made of durable polypropylene, resistant to the effects of subzero temperatures, acids and other negative influences;
a lid that closes the housing on top;
banks separated by partitions from positive Pb2O plates and negative spongy lead plates;
a separator made of a polymer material resistant to acids, which is placed in the banks between the plates (they prevent a short circuit);
terminals – marked (+ and -) leads of cans that are connected in series with each other. The terminals are on opposite parts of the battery, negative is less than positive;
electrolyte – a special solution of concentrated H₂SO₄ in distilled or ozonated water with a density of 1.3 – 1.24-1.25 g / cm3.
In serviced devices, each bank has a plug for checking the electrolyte, and in serviced devices, an indicator is used for these purposes, by the color of which you can determine whether the battery should be charged.
Energy is accumulated during a chemical redox reaction. During battery discharge, a reverse reaction occurs. Unlike disposable batteries, batteries can withstand 200 to 1000 charge / discharge cycles, which is why their profitability is several times higher.
A lead-acid battery is the most economical option, widely used due to its reliability and affordable price. Despite many other options, lead batteries retain their relevance and importance as the simplest and most convenient source of energy. The main advantage of a lead battery is voltage stability when the temperature and load current change.
Gel models are also in high demand – maintenance-free devices in which the electrolyte is presented in the form of jelly. Reducing the fluidity of the electrolyte containing sulfuric acid, simplifies battery operation. The advantage of the device is its low self-discharge rate.
The first lead-acid type battery was invented by G. Plante in France in 1859. The electrodes were made of sheet lead, and the web acted as a separator.
Criteria and characteristics of the use of stationary batteries
The main criterion for using the battery is the severity of the consequences associated with a power outage. The consequences associated with the disconnection of devices, de-energization of equipment can be catastrophic. The role of stationary batteries is especially high in energy, telecommunications, industry, and medicine.
Battery characteristic – usage mode. Batteries designed for buffer operation can quickly begin to work with current loads. This ability is associated with constant or periodic recharging. But a charge / discharge mode is also available.
For stationary batteries, the profile requirements are:
the possibility of long-term use, reliability and safety;
ease of maintenance;
maintaining voltage with constant charge;
low intensity of self-discharge;
the discharge period in systems that provide uninterrupted power, from several minutes to several hours;
high discharge currents characteristic of jerky and pulsed modes.
Applications and classification of stationary batteries
Stationary batteries have a wide range of uses as an uninterruptible power supply:
energy systems to smooth out daily fluctuations in load;
gas pipeline protection systems;
hydro, nuclear and thermal power plants;
wind and solar power plants;
automatic control systems;
emergency power supply systems in hospitals, hotels, and enterprises.
Depending on the features of the technical design of the electrodes, there are 3 groups of stationary lead-acid batteries:
Carapace batteries are produced in polystyrene, polypropylene and ebonite tanks, the electrodes are negative smeared and positive tubular.
Surface box products have a long service life. Work items are represented by negative boxed and positive surface
mi plates, and tanks are made of materials similar to armored batteries.
Rechargeable batteries have an increased thickness of the electrodes. They are made closed. Duration of work is up to 15 years, with a low internal resistance, they exhibit optimal performance.
What to consider when choosing stationary batteries
The choice of stationary batteries depends on service requirements, internal resistance indicators, service life, purpose of use and other features. Consider the main parameters:
Destination Batteries are selected for their intended use. For example, car batteries are not used to power electronic devices.
Capacity. The battery should provide the maximum possible continuous operation of the end user (equipment, device, lighting, etc.) without recharging.
Dimensions The dimensions and weight of the battery must correspond to the required values.
Manufacturing company. Well-known brands that have long been on the market are preferred.
Reliable and high-quality stationary battery from official suppliers of electronic storage devices with a manufacturer’s warranty should be preferred. The Polish company S.I.A.R., founded in 1996, is located in Gliwice and specializes in the production of battery plates, acid-gel type special-purpose batteries, solar panels, stationary battery cells, accessories and components for traction batteries. Siap.by is the official representative of the Polish manufacturer in Belarus and offers global products on the best conditions. Call me!